Quantum simulation of dissipative collective effects on noisy quantum computers
Cattaneo, Marco; Rossi, Matteo A. C.; García-Pérez, Guillermo; Zambrini, Roberta; Maniscalco, Sabrina
PRX Quantum 4, 010324 (2023)
Dissipative collective effects are ubiquitous in quantum physics, and their relevance ranges from the study of entanglement in biological systems to noise mitigation in quantum computers. Here, we put forward the first fully quantum simulation of dissipative collective phenomena on a real quantum computer. The quantum simulation is based on the recently introduced multipartite collision model, which reproduces the action of a dissipative common environment by means of repeated interactions between the system and some ancillary qubits. First, we theoretically study the accuracy of this algorithm on near-term quantum computers with noisy gates, and we derive some rigorous error bounds which depend on the timestep of the collision model and on the gate errors. These bounds can be employed to estimate the necessary resources for the efficient quantum simulation of the collective dynamics. Then, we implement the algorithm on some IBM quantum computers to simulate superradiance and subradiance between a pair of qubits. Our experimental results successfully display the emergence of collective effects in the quantum simulation. Finally, we analyze the noise properties of the gates we employed in the algorithm by means of full process tomography. Using the state-of-the-art tools for noise analysis in quantum computers, we obtain the values of the average gate fidelity, unitarity and diamond error, and we establish a connection between them and the accuracy of the experimentally simulated state. Although the scaling of the error as a function of the number of gates is favorable, we observe that reaching the threshold for quantum fault tolerant computation is still orders of magnitude away.