Species exclusion and coexistence in a noisy voter model with a competition-colonization tradeoff

Martínez-García, Ricardo; López, Cristóbal; Vazquez, Federico
Physical Review E 103, 032406 (2021)

We introduce an asymmetric noisy voter model to study the joint effect of immigration and
a competition-dispersal tradeoff in the dynamics of two species competing for a space on a one-
dimensional lattice. Individuals of one species can invade a nearest-neighbor site in the lattice, while
individuals of the other species are able to invade sites at any distance but are less competitive
locally, i.e., they establish with a probability g ≤ 1. The model also accounts for immigration,
modeled as an external noise that may spontaneously replace an individual at a lattice site by
another individual of the other species. This combination of mechanisms gives rise to a rich variety
of outcomes for species competition, including exclusion of either species, mono-stable coexistence
of both species at different population proportions, and bi-stable coexistence with proportions of
populations that depend on the initial condition. Remarkably, in the bi-stale phase, the system
undergoes a discontinuous transition as the intensity of immigration overcomes a threshold, leading
to an irreversible loop dynamics that may cause the loss of the species with shorter dispersal range.

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