Exploiting oscillatory dynamics of delay systems for reservoir computing

Goldmann, Mirko; Fischer, Ingo ; Mirasso, Claudio R.; Soriano, Miguel C.
Chaos 33, 093139 (2023)

Nonlinear dynamical systems exhibiting inherent memory can process temporal information by exploiting their responses to input drives. Reservoir computing is a prominent approach to leverage this ability for time-series forecasting. The computational capabilities of analog computing systems often depend on both the dynamical regime of the system and the input drive. Most studies have focused on systems exhibiting a stable fixed-point solution in the absence of input. Here, we go beyond that limitation, investigating the computational capabilities of a paradigmatic delay system in three different dynamical regimes. The system we chose has an Ikeda-type nonlinearity and exhibits fixed point, bistable, and limit-cycle dynamics in the absence of input. When driving the system, new input-driven dynamics emerge from the autonomous ones featuring characteristic properties. Here, we show that it is feasible to attain consistent responses across all three regimes, which is an essential prerequisite for the successful execution of the tasks. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can exploit all three regimes in two time-series forecasting tasks, showcasing the versatility of this paradigmatic delay system in an analog computing context. In all tasks, the lowest prediction errors were obtained in the regime that exhibits limit-cycle dynamics in the undriven reservoir. To gain further insights, we analyzed the diverse time-distributed node responses generated in the three regimes of the undriven system. An increase in the effective dimensionality of the reservoir response is shown to affect the prediction error, as also fine-tuning of the distribution of nonlinear responses. Finally, we demonstrate that a trade-off between prediction accuracy and computational speed is possible in our continuous delay systems. Our results not only provide valuable insights into the computational capabilities of complex dynamical systems but also open a new perspective on enhancing the potential of analog computing systems implemented on various hardware platforms.

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